Tibet (the Roof of the World) at a Glance for Your Next Travel Destination

Tibet A plateau region


Tibet a plateau region north of the Himalayas. It is an autonomous region of China. It is metaphorically described as the Roof of the World for it is the highest region on earth. The area lies at an average elevation of 4,900 meters above sea level. It has a total population of 3.18 million (census Dec 2014) and occupying an area of 1.25 million km², about the size of Western Europe. Geographically, It shares borders with India, Kashmir, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, and Myanmar in the south and west. Within China, it abuts Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces to the north, east, and south.

Ecosystem of Tibet

The ecosystem of Tibet endowed with numerous breath-taking natural landscapes and sceneries. For example, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, along with the Yarlung Zangbo River. It is one of the deepest and longest canyons in the world. The world’s top 10 tallest peaks are here. There are many must-sees and hugely sacred sights located in Tibet. The famous sites are the Potala Palace, the Jokhang Temple, Drepung Monastery, Sera Monastery and Ganden Monastery. Climatically, it is severely dry nine months of the year, and low temperatures are prevalent. The environment is harsh with little vegetation, especially in northern areas.

History of Tibet

Since the seventh century, Tibet has the historical records. It is when a unified Tibet came into existence under the then ruler of the 33rd Tibetan King, Songtsan Gampo. The recorded history owes much to the fact that a written standard script came into existence. Which was devised by Thonmi Sambota, who is traditionally regarded as the inventor of the Tibetan script. Full of mysteries and legends, there are five major phases in Tibetan history. These are: 1) The Primitive Historic Phase; 2) The Tsenpo Phase; 3) The Decentralisation Phase, 4) The Sakya, Pagdru and Tsangpa Kingdom Phase; and 5) The Ganden Podrang Phase.

Economy of Tibet 

The economy of Tibet largely bases on the primary sector of agriculture. It much subsistence-based, with some level of extraction of raw materials. The main crops grown are barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes, and assorted fruits and vegetables. Due to limited arable land, the primary occupation is raising livestock, such as sheep, cattle, goats, camels, yaks, and horses. The secondary or the manufacturing sector is not dominant. The service sector is becoming increasingly an important pillar of the economy. Tourism is becoming a significant source of revenue.

Religion of Tibet 

The Tibetans have developed a distinct religion (what many describes as the Science of Mind) cultures. It has strongly been influenced by the local Bon religion and Buddhism. In the hearts of the Tibetan people, respect to nature is considered to be the key or the foundation of a healthy and happy life. Moreover, taking refuge in the “Three Jewels of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha”, appreciation and a sense of gratitude to parents and respect for teachers, doctors and the elders.

Tradition and Cultures of Tibet 

Tibet is blessed with amazingly rich arts and crafts, architecture and music, and festival traditions. These are all reflective of a rich cultural heritage of local roots as well as influence from the trans-Himalayan region. Every Tibetan takes a strong pride in for these. In many respects, Tibet is synonymous with the image of Shangri-La and exoticism of a mystical land gifted with remarkable natural landscapes, deeply devout people, and rich culture.


A Brief History of Tibetan Buddhism བོད་རྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན་གྱི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་གནས་བསྡུས།

The arrival of Buddhist Scriptures

History of Tibetan Buddhism can be traced back to the latter half of the 2nd century. When Thothori Nyantsen was the king of Tibet. During his time, some Buddhist scriptures arrived in southern Tibet from India. The 3rd century saw the spread of scriptures in the northern part of Tibet. At this point of time, Buddhism was not a dominant religion in Tibet. But, it was actually beginning to take shape. The tantric text was yet in the process of being written in India.

King Songtsen Gampo

The first major event in the history of Tibetan Buddhism occurred during the reigns of King Songtsen Gampo in 641. During his rule, Tibet was unified and he also married two Buddhist, Princess Wencheng from China and Princess Bhrikuti Devi from Nepal. This was followed by Buddhism being declared as the State Religion. A network of 108 Buddhist temples was constructed. And, to facilitate the installation of the Buddha statues his wives had brought from their homes. However, along with all this, conflict with the existing national religion, Bon, too continued for long.

The arrival of Padmasambhava & Master Atisha

The most important event in the history of Tibetan Buddhism was the arrival of sage Padmasambhava. He was invited over to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen in the year 774. Padmasambhava translated numerous Buddhist texts into Tibetan language and combined tantric Buddhism with the local Bön religion. It created what is today widely known as the Tibetan Buddhism. Apart from these, Padmasambhava also laid down the foundation of the first Tibetan Buddhist School, Nyingma. Subsequently, in the coming years, all the other schools of Tibetan Buddhism arose from this School itself.

By the middle of the 9th century, Buddhism suffered a major opposition from the locals. Furthermore, the government withdrew its support. It took the arrival of another great Indian scholar, Atisha to restore Buddhism in Tibet. His disciple, Dromton laid down the foundation of yet another old School of Buddhism, Kadampa.

With the advent of the 11th century, Tibetan Buddhism became dominant in Central Asia. Especially in countries like Mongolia and Manchuria. In both these countries, it was adopted as the State Religion. From the 11th century onwards, the other Schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Sakya, Kagyu, and Gelug, also started emerging. In the successive centuries, each of these Schools established itself in different parts of Tibet.

Four Schools of Tibetan Buddhism

Nyingmapa School of Tibetan Buddhism

Nyingma (The Ancient Ones’) Nyingma implies ancient and old in the Tibetan language. This School is the oldest amongst the four school. It is also the largest one after the Gelukpa School. Because the Nyingma lamas wear red robes and caps. There is another name of the school is the Red Hat Sect in the history of Tibetan Buddhism.

History of Nyingmapa Tradition

The School traces its origin to the 8th century when Guru Padmasambhava and the Nalanda University abbot Shantarakshita came to Tibet. King Trisong Deutsan (742-797) invited them to spread Buddhism there. Guru Padmasambhava and Shantarakshitas arrived along with 108 translators and 25 of Padmasambhava’s trusted disciples.

At this point in time, Bon religion was prevalent in Tibet. King Trisong Deutsan entrusted the task of translating the Buddhist Dharma Texts into the Tibetan language. He also entrusted to both these men and their translators and disciples. Padmasambhava looked after the translation work of tantric while Shantarakshita paid attention to the Sutra-teachings. These laid the foundation of the Tantric history of Tibetan Buddhism.

From the 8th century to 11th century, the Nyingma was the sole school of Buddhism in Tibet. It was a period when Buddhism was severely suppressed by the ruling kings. It was only after the 11th century that Nyingma recognized itself as a separate School due to the emergence of other Schools. The followers of this School called themselves Nyingmapa. Nyingma happens to be the only one amongst the four schools whose supporters have never been in charge of political power.

Characteristics of Nyingmapa Tradition

Unlike other Schools, where tantric teachings involve four levels, Nyingma School has 6 levels. The Outer Tantra comprises Kriya, Carya or Ubhaya, and Yogatantra while the Inner Tantra includes Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga/Dzogchen (The “Great Perfection”).

The Termas (Hidden Treasures) and the Tertons (treasure revealers) are of special mention. It is believed that during the reign of king Langdarma when Buddhism was on a decline. Padmasambhava, along with his disciples, hid numerous scriptures, ritual objects, and relics in concealed places to protect Buddhism. This gave rise to the practice wherein two methods of dharma transmission was adopted. The first one involved “long” oral transmission from Teacher to a student in unbroken lineages. While the other one was basically a “short” transmission of “hidden treasures”. This discovery could either be physical, from the rocks and caves or directly to the minds of Terton.

Six Mother Monasteries of Nyingmapa Tradition in Tibet

Six Monasteries have been considered mother monasteries in the Nyingma tradition. Initially, these monasteries included Dorje Drag, Mindrolling and Palri monastery in Upper Tibet. Kathok, Palyul and Dzogchen monasteries in Lower Tibet. However, the decline of Palri Monastery and subsequent growth of Shechen Monastery led to Dorje Drag and Mindroling in Tsetang becoming the mother monasteries in the upper Tibet. In the central and lower Tibet, Shechen and Dzogchen and Kathok and Palyul Monasteries occupied the position of Mother Monasteries respectively. Quite often, the Dodrubchen replaces Kathok in the list. Samye monastery, the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet belongs to this tradition. From these mother monasteries, several other monasteries were developed not only in Tibet but also in Bhutan and Nepal.

Kagyupa (Oral Lineage) School of Tibetan Buddhism

The another name of Kagyu School is  the Oral Lineage” and “the Spotless Practice Lineage” school.

History of Kagyupa

The Kagyu School owes its origin in Tibet to the great Translator Marpa (1012-1097). Marpa spent 17 years in India. During this period, he received teachings from the renowned Indian sages Tilopa and Naropa. Marpa spread these teachings in Tibet. Amongst his disciples, Milerepa was the most important one. Milerepa, in turn, had a disciple Gampopa (1079-1153). He established the distinct Kagyu School. Further, Gampopa’s teaching also led to the foundation of ‘Four Major School’ and ‘Eight Minor’ sub Schools of Kagyu.

Characteristics of Kagyupa

The doctrine lays emphasis on four principal stages of meditative practice. The Four Yogas of Mahamudra through which the follower achieves the perfect realization of Mahamudra. The four stages include –

  1. The development of single-pointedness of mind,
  2. The transcendence of all conceptual elaboration,
  3. The cultivation of the perspective that all phenomena are of a “single taste”,
  4. The fruition of the path, which is beyond any contrived acts of meditation.

Four Major Schools of Kagyupa

Kagyu School comprises one major and one minor subsect. The major subsect, Dagpo Kagyu that includes all those Schools dating back to the times of Gampopa. It is further subdivided into four major sub-sects: the Karma Kagyu, the Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru Kagyu. The Pagtru Kagyu (minor subsect) gave birth to eight subsects – Drukpa Kagyu, Drikung Kagyu, Mar Kagyu, Shugseb Kagyu, Taklung Kagyu, Trophu Kagyu, Yamzang Kagyu and Yelpa Kagyu.

Kagyupa Monasteries in Tibet

In the history of Tibetan, Kham, and eastern Tibet is the center of the BuddhismImportant Kagyu Monasteries. Some of the important Buddhist Monasteries of Tibet include Palpung Monastery, Ralung Monastery, Surmang Monastery and Tsurphu Monastery.

Sakyapa (Grey Earth) School of Tibetan Buddhism

History of Sakyapa

During the late 11th century, Sakya Schools of Tibetan Buddhism emerged when the Buddhist scripts were being translated from Sanskrit to the Tibetan language in the second round of translation. “Five Venerable Supreme Masters” – Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, Sonam Tsemo, Drakpa Gyaltsen, Sakya Pandita and Chogyal Pakpa founded the school. The first monastery of this sect was established by Tibetan lama, Khon Konchog Gyalpo. The monastery was erected at a unique grey landscape of Ponpori Hills near Shigatse in southern Tibet. It is from here that Sakya that translates into ‘Pale Earth’ draws its name.

Characteristics of Sakyapa

The most important teaching of the Sakya sect in the history of Tibetan Buddhism is the system of Lambdre or the “Path and its Fruit”. This is drawn from the Siddha Virupa (Birwapa/Birupa) and rests upon the Hevajra Tantra. The esoteric Vajrayogini lineage known as “Naro Khachoma” and tantric practices also forms part of the Sakya School.

Unlike other Schools, Sakya has two different forms of teachings. The first one is for the generic audience and has sutra as its basis. On the other hand, the second is private education with tantric as its base.

Sub-schools of Sakyapa Sect

Two sub-schools of Sakya sect spring from the main lineage. The Ngor was established by Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo and Tshar was founded by Tsarchen Losal Gyamtso.

Important Sakyapa Monasteries in Tibet

Important Monasteries in the history of Tibetan Buddhism associated with Sakya sect include the Sakya Monastery, Gonggar Monastery, and the Erer Monastery. The location of the Gonggar Monastery is in Gonggar County of Shannan Prefecture. And, the Ngor Monastery stands near Shigatse.


Gelugpa (Way of Virtue)School of Tibetan Buddhism

The most recent, nonetheless the largest of all the Schools, the Gelug is the School of the Virtuous.

History of Gelugpa Tradition

It was founded by Gyalwa Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) as a reform movement within the Tibetan Buddhism. Gyalwa Tsongkhapa was a philosopher and a Tibetan religious teacher who was greatly influenced by the Kadam School of Tibetan Buddhism (11th century). The Kadampa had three lineages and Tsongkhapa combined all the three along with Sakya, Kagyu and other teachings to present his doctrine.

The first monastery of the Gelug School was founded by Tsongkhapa at Ganden. This monastery, till present date, is the nominal head of the school, however, its temporal head and most influential figure are the Dalai Lama. The first Dalai Lama, Gyalwa Gedun Drupa, was the disciple of Tsongkhapa. The current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso.

By the time, 16th century drew to its end, the Gelug School had established itself as the most important School in Tibetan Buddhism. From the 17th century onwards to the mid of the 19th century, the Dalai Lama held the political power over central Tibet.

Characteristics of Gelugpa Tradition

The primary teachings of the Gelug School are Lamrim, or the “Stages of the Path” and the systematic cultivation of the view of emptiness. The first teaching rests upon the teachings of Atisha, an 11th-century Indian master. This is united with the deity yogas of Highest Yoga Tantra deities where the central focus is the realization of the indivisible union of bliss and emptiness.

Each Gelug Monastery has its own set of texts, however, the texts written by the Gelug School founder are considered most important. These texts are – The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path, The Great Exposition of Tantras, The Essence of Eloquence on the Interpretive and Definitive Teachings, The Praise of Relativity, The Clear Exposition of the Five Stages of Guhyasamaja and The Clear Exposition of the Five Stages of Guhyasamaja.

Important Gelugpa Monasteries in the history of Tibetan Buddhism

Important Gelug Monasteries include Ganden Monastery, Sera Monastery, Drepung Monastery,  and Tashi Luhnpo Monastery. The monks of this monastery wear yellow hats which is why they are also called the Yellow Hat Sect.

Tibet Universal Tours and Travel offers in-depth thematic tour services, predominately focusing on Tibetan Bon religion and the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, for more information please link to THEMATIC TOURS    

Here are some more topics about Tibet and Tibetan culture

  1. Tibetan Culture & Customs
  2. About Tibet the roof of the world
  3. Eight Auspicious Signs བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་།
  4. Prayer Wheels མ་ཎི་འཁོར་ལོ།


Visit Tibet to discover the amazing place in the earth. Here are top 4 reasons to visit Tibet. Traveling to Tibet gives you a great opportunity to explore the plateau region north of the Himalayas. The average altitude of Tibet is over 4000 meters above sea level. It is best described as the “Roof of the World”. For centuries Tibet has been known as the last home of mystery, the hidden and sealed land. In the place, where ancient mysteries still survive that have perished in the rest of the Orient. Many people from all over the world want to visit Tibet as a trip destination for at least once in their lifetime.

Visit Tibet

After a glance at the reasons below to visit Tibet, the Awe-inspiring Plateau Landscape, the Overwhelming Devoted Religion, the Welcoming and Friendly Tibetan People, the Long-standing Customs, and Traditions. One will surely start picturing before their eyes a trip to Tibet as a must-visit place. A well-known English proverb says that “Better to see something once than hear about it a thousand times.”

1. Visit Tibet the Awe-inspiring Plateau Landscape

Travelling to Tibet

In many respects, Tibet is synonymous with the image of Shangri-La. And, the exoticism of a mystical land gifted with remarkable natural landscapesn and beauty. Over one-fifth of world’s top 100 independent summits is situated in Tibet. They include the Mt. Everest (alt. 8844.43m), “the world’s summit”; the Mt. Cho Oyu (alt. 8201m), the sixth highest mountain on the planet and the Mt. Shishapangma (alt. 8013m), the fourteenth highest mountain in the world. Moreover, the Mt. Kailash, one of the most sacred spots on earth, and is also a holy pilgrimage site for many religious believers in South Asia including the Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Bon faiths.

There are numerous gorgeous and beautiful lakes in Tibet. These are Yamdrok Lake, Namtso Lake, Manasarovar Lake and Lhamo La-tso Lake. In addition, there are many other natural beauties like deep canyons, grand glaciers, bare stones, Gobi desert, lush forest, wild species, and vast prairie in Tibet. It shows a good reason to visit Tibet and experienced with a unique land and culture.

2. The Overwhelming Devoted Religion

The Overwhelming Devoted Religion

Religion is extremely important to the Tibetans and has a strong influence on every aspect of their lives. Tibetan Bon religion is the indigenous spiritual tradition of Tibet. It rooted before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century AD. But nowadays Tibetan Buddhism is the most widely practiced religion. It is evident when you set your eyes on many things around you. Even on the attractive key chains that you buy from the smallest street shops. There has a depiction of Buddhism in some form or another. Tibetan people take their religion, beliefs, and values very seriously.

If you visit Tibet, you can visit many ancient monasteries, temples and palaces. These are dotted around the land of Tibet. You can explore many best-loved religious sites, which would enable you to familiarize with the biographies of the renowned spiritual masters and scholars of the past. You can observe the unique landscapes and the buildings that represent Bon and Buddhist architectures.  They include such sites as the Potala Palace, which was built in the 7th century by the Tibetan King Songtsen Gambo. Jokhang and Ramoche temples, which are two of the holiest Buddhist temples in Tibet. These were built in the 7th century. The Yumbu Lhagang Palace, which was built in the second century B.C. by the first king of Tibet, ‘Nyatri Tsenpo’.  Gaden, Sera and Drepung Monasteries, which are the biggest learning centres of Gelugpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. All are attracting you to visit Tibet.

3. The Welcoming and Friendly Tibetan People

Welcoming and Friendly Tibetan People

Tibet has a rich cultural heritage as well as a deep unique societal tradition and values. Wisdom, knowledge about life, compassion, tolerance and peace of mind are some of the key values that underpin the Tibetan culture. The simplicity of life and the spirituality of minds of the people in this land are always distinct in many senses. Even a few days of stay and travel in and around Tibet will leave you with a strong impression. The simple traditional courtesies and values in the life of people. You also impressed by the ways in which one can attain some of the desirable qualities such as compassion and empathy for others.

4. The Long-standing Customs and Tradition

Tibetan Dance

As many cultures around the world, Tibet has formed its own unique customs and traditions over thousands of years. They include traditional beliefs and practices. These are much related to everyday lives (i.e. clothing, food, housing, festival, folklore, wedding, funeral, customs and social taboos). Furthermore, the special sectors such as animal husbandry, astronomy, calendric system, medicine, architecture, hardware, textiles, literature, paintings, and sculptures. The music, dance, and local operas are great assets to enjoy as tourists.

The Eight Great Buddhist Stupas in the Tibetan Culture

 Eight Great Buddhist Stupas མཆོད་རྟེན་ཆ་བརྒྱད་།

The Eight Great Buddhist Stupas

Eight Great Buddhist Stupas (Sanskrit) or Chorten (Tibetans) are the important Tibetan Buddhism and culture. Furthermore, it represents eight important events in the life and works of Buddha Shakyamuni. The Eight Great Buddhist Stupas are symbols of enlightened mind and the path to its realization. The Eight Great Buddhist Stupas represent the Buddha’s body, speech, and mind. Consequently, the eight stupas also the places of worship by Buddhist followers.

The Idea of Stupas

In ancient Indian art, the Buddha Shakyamuni was not represented as a person but as a stupa. Therefore, when Buddha Shakyamuni passed away, his followers built the eight great Buddhist stupas. The stupas built with relics and other holy objects that they collected from the Buddha’s cremation. Most noteworthy the Eight Great Buddhist Stupas represented eight important deeds of their great teacher. Since then, the Eight Great Buddhist Stupas contain some important relics of great masters. Furthermore, it also contains or other objects like scriptures that manifest the mind of enlightenment and peace.

The design of Buddhist stupas

First of all, the design of Buddhist stupas is very technical and each part symbolizes specific religious meanings and importance. The stupa has assumed the representation of the five purified elements and especially relevant to great religious teaching. The shape of the Stupa represents the Buddha and Crowned and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. His crown is the top of the spire and the head is the square at the spire’s base. Body is the vase shape and legs are the four steps of the lower terrace. The base is his throne and the square base represents earth. The hemispherical dome/vase represents water. The conical spire represents fire. The upper lotus parasol and the crescent moon represent air and the sun. And, the dissolving point represents the element of space.

Building a stupa is a very powerful way to purify negative karma and obscuration. Furthermore, it also powerful to accumulate extensive merit. In this way, you can have realizations of the path to Enlightenment. Moreover, you will be able to do perfect work to liberate suffering beings. Leading them to the peerless happiness of Enlightenment and which is the ultimate goal of our life.

Lotus Blossom Stupa (བདེ་གཤེགས་མཆོད་རྟེན། Dheshey Chorten)

Lotus Blossom Stupa

First of all, the Stupa also known as Stupa of Heaped Lotuses or Birth of the Sugata Stupa and this stupa refers to the birth of the Buddha. “At birth Buddha took seven steps in each of the four directions” (East, South, West, and North). Most noteworthy, each direction lotuses sprang, symbolizing the Four Immeasurable: love, compassion, joy, and equanimity. The four steps of the basis of this stupa are circular, and it is decorated with lotus-petal designs. Occasionally, seven heaped lotus steps are constructed. These refer to the seven first steps of the Buddha.


Enlightenment Stupa (བྱང་ཆུབ་མཆོད་རྟེན། Shangchuk Chorten)

Enlightenment Stupa

It familiar as the Stupa of the Conquest of Mara. This stupa also symbolizes the 35-year-old Buddha’s attainment of enlightenment under the bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya.  Where he conquered worldly temptations and attacks manifesting in the form of Mara.


Stupa of Many Doors (ཆོས་འཁོར་མཆོད་རྟེན། Chokhor Chorten)

Stupa of Many Doors

Also known as the Stupa of Many Gates. After reaching enlightenment, the Buddha taught his first students in a deer-park near Sarnath. The series of doors on each side of the steps also represent the first teachings. Moreover, the teachings are the Four Noble Truths, the Six Perfections, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Twelve Links in the Chain of Dependent Origination.


Stupa of Great Miracles (ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་མཆོད་རྟེན། Chotrul Chorten)

Stupa of Great Miracles

Also known as Stupa of Conquest of theTirthikas. This stupa refers to various miracles performed by the Buddha when he was 50 years old. Legend claims that he overpowered Mara sand heretics by engaging them in intellectual arguments and also by performing miracles. This stupa was raised by the Lichavi kingdom to commemorate the event.


Stupa of Descent from the God Realm (ལྷ་བབ་མཆོད་རྟེན། Lhaba Chorten)

Stupa of Descent from the God Realm

At 42 years old, Buddha spent a summer retreat in Tushita Heaven, where his mother had taken rebirth. In order to repay her kindness, he taught the dharma to her reincarnation. Consequently, local inhabitants built a stupa like this in Sankasya in order to commemorate this event. This stupa isalso  characterized by having a central projection at each side containing a triple ladder or steps.


Stupa of Reconciliation (དབྱེན་ཟླུམ་མཆོད་རྟེན། Yidum Chorten)

Stupa of Reconciliation

This stupa commemorates the Buddha’s reconciliation of the disputing factions within the Sangha which had been divided by the enmity of his cousin Devadatta. Buddha reunited the Sangha at the Veluvana bamboo grove at Rafagriha, and the local inhabitants of the kingdom of Magadha constructed a stupa in this design. The reconciliation stupa is characterized by its four octagonal steps with equal sides. Furthermore, various symbolic meanings are given for the four levels of eights-sided steps, which total thirty-two in number.


Stupa of Complete Victory (རྣམ་རྒྱལ་མཆོད་རྟེན། Namgyal Chorten)

Stupa of Complete Victory

This stupa commemorates the Buddha’s prolongation of his lifetime by three months. This event occurred at the city of Vaisali when Buddha was eight years of age by the supplication of the lay devotee Tsundra. The celestial beings are said to have erected a stupa of this design. Most noteworthy, the complete victory stupa is characterized by having only three steps, which are circular and unadorned.


Stupa of Nirvana (མྱང་འདས་མཆོད་རྟེན། Nyadek Chorten)

  Stupa of Nirvana

This stupa refers to the death of the Buddha when he was 80 years old. It symbolizes the Buddha’s complete absorption into the highest state of mind. The Nirvana stupa is characterized by its circular bell-shaped dome and usually not ornamented.


The benefits of building a Stupa:

  • If you make 1,000 Stupas, you will become a great ‘Wheel-turning Holder of the Wisdom Teachings’ (Mahayana Secret Mantra) and have clairvoyance knowing all the Buddha dharma.
  • After death, without being born in the lower realms, you will be born in the superior realms.
  • You will be able to extensively listen to the Dharma without forgetfulness.
  • The “Stainless Beam” sutra states – ‘All negative karma and obscuration, including the five uninterrupted negative karmas, are purified even by dreaming of a Stupa. Seeing a Stupa hearing the sound of the bell of a Stupa and even for birds and flies etc., by being touched by the shadow of a Stupa.
  • The sentient beings will always be protected by the Buddha. Who always pay attention to guiding them to achieve complete pure Enlightenment. They abide in the irreversible stage.
  • It is explained by Shakyamuni Buddha in the Sutras. Building a Stupa for those who have passed away is extremely powerful. It immediately changes a suffering rebirth into a fortunate rebirth with the opportunity to meet the Dharma.
  • It can also heal those with serious diseases.
  • There is no question that it accumulates extensive merit and brings success and happiness. Therefore, dedicate to your ancestors, family members and friends who have passed away or who are sick, and for the happiness of yourself and your family in this and future lives.

The Wheel of Life or Samsara in Buddhist Teaching སྲིད་པའི་འཁོར་ལོ།

The Wheel of Life or Samsara

The Wheel of Life or Samsara was designed by the Buddha Shakyamuni himself as a total explanation of Buddhist teaching. It is one of the earliest historical examples of a visual aid used in teaching to explain the workings of karma.

The Wheel of Life & States of Mind

The Wheel of Life or Samsara is one of the most profound of all the Buddhist teachings for its’ encapsulates. Furthermore, the primary and advanced teachings of Buddhism regarding the subtle realities of life in its reincarnating principles and environments. It contains all the essential teachings of Buddhism. Moreover, it is a most profound instrument of teaching and depiction of the interrelated doctrines of Buddhism. Samsara is often painted at the gate of all the Buddhist Monasteries. The wheel of life is, in fact, a mirror. When we look at it or into it we are in effect looking at ourselves.

We see ourselves in the picture, our heights and depths and we also see our reactivity and potential creativity. We see all we have been, and what we now are as well as what we could become. Wheel of Life or Samsara not only represents sentient life on different levels but also perhaps represents life on the Psychological Mental. Most noteworthy, conscious and subconscious levels. In addition, for a full understanding of these ideas, we shall explore the different images in the picture.

The wheel of life has four parts:

pigeon snake pig

The First Circle:

In the center circle, you can see a pigeon which represents desire. A snake which represents hatred and a pig which represent ignorance. These are the root or the cause of suffering in Samsara. These animals are used in the picture because they best represent the animal-like tendencies in our mind. As a result of the mind, it cause us to traverse the wheel and to take rebirth again and again.

Desire can have both a negative and positive expression. Here we are concerned with its negative aspect which is rooted in Greed, Hatred and Delusion. In addition, which reinforce our most basic ideas concerning ourselves. Moreover, which heaps us bound to the cycle of birth and death. Compassion Generosity rooted in Desire, and Awareness this provides the ‘motive force’ for our eventual ‘escape’ from the cycle of becoming, for self-transcendence and final liberation.


white path and black path The second circle

The second circle is divided into a white path and black path. This circle represent the two ways we can act in any situation either with skillfulness or unskillfulness. The white path represents the effects of all of our willed actions (Karma) (of body, speech & mind). The root of it is compassion, generosity and awareness. Consequently, it leads us to experience happy, peaceful and joyful states of mind. Opposite of it, the black path represents the effects of all of our negative action (Karma) (of body, speech & mind). The black path lead us to experience sufferings as a natural consequence.

In conclusion, depending on our motivation towards acting with Awareness and compassion, or with a self-centred ignorance and unawareness we will experience states of mind in accordance with our actions. This is perhaps a very important point within the whole of the Buddhist teachings. Our present state of experience both subjective and objective are what we are creating all the time and are not given to us by some outside divine power and nor they fixed and rigid for all time. Our experience tends to seem fixed because our actions are often fixed and habitual.


 The six realmsThe third circle

The third circle has six parts which are the six realms. The upper three include the god realms, demi-god realms and the human realm. These are the superior realms. The three inferior lower realms are the animal realm, the hungry ghost realm, and the hell realm. Living beings are reborn in a particular realm as a result of their karma and live in that realm until that karma has been exhausted. Living beings take rebirth into a particular realm not as a punishment or a reward for past actions, but more, that the body and the world they come to inhabit is the best expression of their mental states.

This is quite true but there is more to the symbolism of the six segments of the third circle than just this. The six segments of the third circle also represent six states of mind which we can experience here and now, in our present human existence. Sometimes we can experience these states of mind so strongly that for the time being, we seem actually to be living in another world, in heaven or in hell, or among the hungry ghosts etc. It is possible therefore to experience them almost as states of being, rather than just as states of mind. So we can look at each of the six words in this light, as states of mind as well as states of being.


12 links of dependent-origination

The fourth or the last circle

The fourth or the last circle shows the 12 links of dependent-origination. The wrathful figure that holds the wheel is Yama or the lord of death and it represents impermanence of life. The Buddha taught that if we practice the Dharma we can free ourselves from this wheel of life and attain true happiness; which means to escape the cycle of Samsara.

The Twelve Links of Dependent-Origination The cycle of dependent origination is at the heart of Buddhist teaching that all things are impermanent and nothing has an inherent existence apart from other causes and conditions. The twelve link cycle is illustrated as the outer most ring on the Wheel of Life often drawn in the entrance to many monasteries




blind man with a walking-stick

.1. Just to the right of the top is a blind man with a walking-stick, representing ignorance of the true nature of the world.



2. Moving clockwise, a potter moulding a pot symbolizes that we shape our own destiny with our actions through the workings of karma.



Monkey climbing a tree

3. The monkey climbing a tree represents consciousness or the mind which wanders aimlessly and out of control.




4. Consciousness gives rise to name and form, which is symbolized by people travelling in a boat on the river of life.



Empty house, the doors and windows

5. The next link is an empty house, the doors and windows of which symbolize the developing sense organs. Buddha noted six senses of sight, smell, taste, hearing, touch and thought.



Lovers embracing

6. The six senses allow us to have contact with the world, which is symbolized by lovers embracing.


Arrow piercing the eye

7. From contact arise feelings, which we categorize as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. Feelings are represented on the wheel as an arrow piercing the eye.


Drinking alcohol

8. From feelings arises desire or attachment to pleasant feelings and experiences, symbolized by a couple falling in love or a man.



 Monkey picking fruit

9. Desire or attachment leads to grasping for an object of desire, symbolized by a monkey picking fruit.




Making love

10. From grasping arises existence represented by a man and a woman making love.




Child birth

11. Existence culminates in birth (entry into the human realm), which is symbolized by a woman in childbirth.


Old man carrying a burden

12. Birth naturally leads to aging and death which is symbolized by an old man carrying a burden. !


You will notice the Wheel of Life and Samsara in all the Buddhist monasteries, temples and hotels in Tibet.

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